CONCEPT AND DEFINITION OF GLOBALIZATION

  • In very simple terms globalization can be depicted as increasing global interconnectedness.
  • It is a process rather than an outcome, which refers to the trend toward the growing interconnectedness of different parts of the world, not to their being interconnected.
  • It primarily is an interchange of economic, social, cultural, political, technological attributes that takes place between societies when different societies come into contact with each
  • Though this interchange is going on for times immemorial, this process was termed as “globalization” for the first time around the second half of 20th For eg in ancient times world particularly Europe, Asia and Africa were interconnected through silk route . Then came colonialism and slave trade which were also drivers of globalization.
  • The most common definition of present day globalization refers to the growing integration of various countries to the world economy. It results mostly from a freer movement of capital, products and information, which affects not just the economy, but also, the political, cultural, social and environmental arenas
  • ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION : means dismantling of barriers of business , trade , migration of human resources , money etc reflected in growing global trade , emergence of trans national companies (TNCs) , common-unified markets etc
  • POLITICAL GLOBALIZATION : refers to dilution of soverignities in the favour of multinational institutions in form of regional and global bodies like UN , IMF , WTO etc. In broader terms emergence of democratic political culture replacing authoritarian regimes of latin America , Africa , middle east etc is an indicator of political globalization
  • CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION : also referred to as globalization of values means emergence of trans-national , ethical and cultural framework changing very nature of different societies. Notions of social justice , idea of freedom , emergence of global civil society etc are the aspects of universalistic value system which is crossing boundaries today.

OLD VS NEW GLOBALIZATION

  • Old globalization was based on coercion and exploitation while in new globalization little coercion works :
    • Globalisation had begun with the overseas expansion of capitalism in the form of imperial conquests and white colony The process of imperialism  had brought the  Asian, African and Latin  American countries under the European political and economic domination.  These countries were compelled to _open-up’ their economies for unfettered penetration by the global industrial capital.  This phase has generally been referred to  as the  “widening phase” of globalisation. During this phase, the economic integration of the world was confined to international trade and colonial exploitative relationships.
    • New developments in the field of communications have forced the economic powers to renounce the use of force for the exploitation of the colonies’. Instead, indirect pressure through World Bank, IMF, GATT, WTO, etc., is generated on the capital-starved developing societies to make structural adjustments to accommodate the interests of the Multi-National Companies (MNCs).
  • Another important shift from the earlier phase is that the contemporary form of globalisation has witnessed the setting up of production centres by the MNCs in the developing countries accompanied by a tremendous increase in the velocity of capital flow across national boundaries.
  • The third distinctive feature is the remarkable growth in Foreign Direct
    Investment (FDI) which has been many times higher than world trade and world output.
  • with the arrival of computer-aided communication network, the
    international movement of capital has acquired an independent life of its own, unrelated  to the  needs of  international  trade.

FACTORS AIDING GLOBALIZATION IN INDIA

  • Technology: has reduced the speed of communication manifolds. The phenomenon of social media in the recent world has made distance insignificant.
  • The integration of technology in India has transformed jobs which required specialized skills and lacked decision-making skills to extensively-defined jobs with higher accountability that require new skills, such as numerical, analytical, communication and interactive skills. As a result of this, more job opportunities are created for people.
  • LPG Reforms: The 1991 reforms in India have led to greater economic liberalisation which has in turn increased India’s interaction with the rest of the world.
  • Faster Transportation:Improved transport, making global travel easier. For example, there has been a rapid growth in air-travel, enabling greater movement of people and goods across the globe.
  • Rise of WTO:The formation of WTO in 1994 led to reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers across the world. It also led to the increase in the free trade agreements among various countries.
  • Improved mobility of capital: In the past few decades there has been a general reduction in capital barriers, making it easier for capital to flow between different economies. This has increased the ability for firms to receive finance. It has also increased the global interconnectedness of global financial markets.
  • Rise of MNCs: Multinational corporations operating in different geographies have led to a diffusion of best practices. MNCs source resources from around the globe and sell their products in global markets leading to greater local interaction.

IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INDIAN SOCIETY

1.IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON WOMEN IN INDIA

Although Women holds unique position in any society, they still belong to a disadvantaged class of society due to various social barriers and impediments . Globalization is having both positive and negative impacts on women in India . They are as discussed below :

POSITIVE IMPACTS

  • It has opened up broader communication lines and brought more companies as well  as different worldwide organizations into India- this provides more opportunities for women as it provides new platform to work.
  • With new jobs for women, there are opportunities for higher pay, which raises self- confidence and brings about independence particularly financial.
  • It has also promoted equality among sexes as globalization has power to uproot traditional treatment towards women to afford them equal stance in society .
  • It has increased rate of Women in urban areas have become more independent and self-sufficient. Due to new job opportunities in urban areas even women are migrating to cities.
  • The lower middle class is experiencing a shift in the way family relations worked. Traditionally women stayed at home  taking care of domestic  needs  and Now most of the women are setting out of their private spaces to earn a living.
  • Globalization has led increase in education of women, it has led to an improvement in health care facilities, leading to reduction of MMR and IMR leading to better health status of women
  • It has led to an increase in independence of women especially in urban This has been manifested through inter-caste marriages, single mothers, live-in relationships etc
  • The women in rural settings have been influenced by globalization through media and through numerous intervention programs like non-profit organizations, increasing self- confidence of women and motivating them to fight for their rights

NEGATIVE ASPECTS

  • Though employment opportunities for women are increasing, they are mostly crowded in low paying jobs, have less social Further most of the female workers are in unorganized sector.
  • Women are suffering two As women in developing countries move into the work force, their domestic responsibilities are not alleviated. Women work two full time jobs ; one at home and other at workplace which adds to mental stress
  • Exploitation of women in work place has emerged as a new issue eg sexual harassment at workplace , no gender equality in pay .
  • Globalization has occurred with the persistence of patriarchal mindset of Indians, this has led to problems for women like commodification of women, use of social media to harass women, increase in violence against Women continued to be perceived as weak , inferior , second-class citizens .
  • As consumers, women are increasingly facing a consumer culture which reduces them to commodities and as producers, women are exposed to work exploitation and occupational hazards
  • Additionally abuse , prostitution and dowry related suicides/murders are on the increase despite modernization and globalization.

2.IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INDIAN CULTURE

  • Globalization affects culture in many ways. Over the ages India has had an open approach to cultural influences ( eg cultural influences of Aryans, Turks , Mughals , Europeans etc ) and has been enriched because of
  • The last few decades have seen major cultural changes leading to fears that our local cultures would be overtaken or become part of a homogeneous culture. Thus there are heated debates in our society today about changes in clothes, styles, music we listen, films we watch , languages we speak , body language etc.
  • Today due to hi-tech communication technologies pace of cultural penetration has increased tremendously . We can say that acceleration of globalization hastens the pace of cultural change . Today one of the most important debate regarding the impact of globalization on culture is Homenization vs Glocalization of culture .

Homogenization versus Glocalization of culture:

  • A central controversy is that all cultures will become similar, that is Others argue that there is an increasing tendency towards glocalisation of culture.
  • Glocalisation refers to the mixing of the global with the local culture. It is a strategy often adopted by foreign firms while dealing with local traditions in order to enhance their
  • In India, we find that all the foreign television channels like Star, MTV, Channel V and Cartoon Network use Indian languages. Even McDonald sells only vegetarian and chicken products in India and not its beef products, which are popular abroad. McDonald’s goes vegetarian during the Navaratri festival. In the field of music, one can see the growth of popularity of ‘Bhangra pop’, ‘Indi pop’, fusion music and even remixes.

Homogenization of Culture : The idea that cultures would become more similar and homogeneous with the spread of globalization has been encompassed under the ‘Convergence thesis’ by contemporary sociologists. To cite an example, one can make an argument by saying that 21st century India appears more similar to 21st century USA rather than a 19th century.The rate at which various parts of Indian society are experiencing westernization and modernization gives us ample evidence that indeed Indian culture is becoming more oriented towards the West in the past few years.

  • Family structure: Joint family has been adversely affected due to There has been an increase in nuclear families. This can be clearly manifested in the increasing number of old age homes that are present now. The diversity in family forms has given way to a dominance of nuclear family in the globalized India
  • Food: due to opening up of food joints like McDonalds, KFC , Subways across the country, there has been a homogenization of food available across the country, but there has also been heterogenization in Old restaurants are now replaced by Mc. Donalds. Fast food and Chinese dishes have replaced juice corners and Parathas.
  • Borrowing of money has become more acceptable now as compared to the Taking loans is very common due to increasing access to financial institutions
  • In place of old cinema halls, multiplex theatres are coming
  • Use of English has increased manifold in urban areas, this has led to a homogenization in language across the country, but the rural areas have been less affected by

Glocalization of Culture

  • Food: India has its unique cuisine, but the cuisines of foreign countries have become more easily available, they are modified to suit the taste buds of Indians (like Paneer Tikka Burger in McDonalds). This has led to a wide variety of food being available, leading to Customization of foreign dishes to suit Indian taste buds. For example Lacing traditionally bland Chinese food with a generous sprinkling of Indian spices
  • French, German and Spanish are taught to students right from school level along with indigenous languages, this is an exemplification of hybridization of culture
  • Movies: popularity of foreign movies has increased, Hollywood, Chinese, French and Korean movies are quite popular among the urban Along with this, dubbing of these foreign movies in local languages is testimony of increased glocalization.
  • Festivals: celebrations of Valentines’ day, Friendship day are examples of change in cultural values related to However, along with these new days, traditional festivals are celebrated with equal enthusiasm.
  • Marriage: Importance of marriage is decreasing, there has been an increase in divorce, increase in live-in relationships, and single parenting is Marriage used to be considered as bonding of the souls; but today marriage is becoming professional and contractual. However, despite change in forms of marriage, it has not declined as an institution.
  • Fashion : Dressing and fashion are the areas where one finds this blend as being the most visible. Be it wearing a saree with blouse or wearing a three piece suit during a wedding reception or wearing of the mysore turbon over a western dress are live examples of this phenomenon
  • Social Media : Today social media apps like Facebook , whatsapp , Instagram etc provide language options in vernaculars and local mother tongues also like Gujarati , Marathi , Punjabi etc.

Resurgence of Cultural Nationalism

  • Due to threats of homogenization of cultures , globalization has given rise to cultural campaining to defend local identities. European countries have campaigned against the threat of Americanization . Even in India this trend can be observed . eg Shiv Sena activists campaigning against Valentine’s Day celebrations in India .
  • Revival of Yoga in the country as well as in the international level can be seen in the popularity of the ‘Art of Living’ course by Ravi Shankar, or the celebration of International Yoga day across the world
  • There has been a revival of ayurvedic medicines in the country as well as outside AYUSH health policy has laid emphasis on promotion of traditional forms of medicines and therapies including Ayurveda , Unani , Homepathy , Naturopathy etc
  • Due to increasing uncertainty by inter-linkage with the outside world, there has been religious revivalism. This can be manifested in the use of religion to attract voters, or mobilizing people on the basis of
  • Increasing demand for local handicraft products in global market: such as Chikenkari or bandhani.
  • Due to increasing global tourism, locals are making efforts to preserve their diversity and revive their

3.IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON YOUTH

  • Unemployment among youth has become a serious problem. Young migrants    are  pushed and pulled into the cities only to find a stressed local In the absence of critical infrastructure many youth suffer from the mismanagement of scarce resources, corruption, and sometimes natural calamities that devastate overpopulated areas.
  • Religious, civic and ethnic conflicts also weaken economic prosperity available in cities, which often directly involve young
  • Change in career preferences: The most highly regarded careers like government services, engineering, and medicine are giving way to high- paying jobs in high tech and the
  • Present day youth, with its more materialistic ambitions and more globally informed opinions, are gradually abandoning the austere ways and restricted traditional Indian Youth demand a more cosmopolitan society that is a full-fledged member of the global economy.
  • In addition to the dynamic, global, economic forces effecting India, globalization has brought change to India’s rich Youth see themselves as global teenagers. They belong to a much bigger community than the community they were born into. The younger generation is embracing western popular culture and incorporating it into their Indian identity.
  • Consumerism has permeated and transformed the traditional beliefs and practices of the Indian The traditional Indian dress is declining, especially among urban youth, in favour of new fashions particularly from the west ( “ The Jeans – T shirt culture). Buying the latest cars, televisions, electronic gadgets, and trendy clothes has become quite popular.
  • The younger poor population is particularly susceptible to the allure of costly products seen in advertisements and when they cannot respond to these ads, they get Crime and depression can be the result of their frustration.
  • Globalization also is changing family institutions/structures, and the nuclear family is increasingly the norm. Youth are not as close to their grandparents as were earlier generations and spend less time with the older generation resulting in loss of wisdom handed down from generation to
  • Globalization has led to an increase in uncertainty among youth; this underlying instability may serve to magnify the tensions and lack of control they experience on a daily Uncertainty is because of the breakdown of traditional norms, weakening of social relations like that of family and marriage, uncertainty in career due to market economy and day to day disruptions caused by technology globally. This has led to an increase in cases of depression and suicide among the youth.
  • Most religious activities are becoming irrelevant to the They want to see changes in religion. Atheistic values among youth is rising. They are not internalizing traditional ideas; rather, they are merely tolerating them.
  • Politically they have become more aware of their rights and are also against irrational practices.

The evaluation of the effects of globalization is as a mixed bag, both good and bad. Economic globalization has improved study and job opportunities and provided greater employment opportunities. But it has also made the poor even poorer. But importantly, there is no going back from globalisation. Only adaptation is the way forward.

4.IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON CASTE SYSTEM

Due to globalization, there has been changes in the traditional caste system in following ways:

  • Due to globalization, there has been expansion of economic opportunities, education and liberal thoughts, which has resulted in weakening of the caste People got the high paying jobs in multinational companies on the basis of talent not caste or class. Which help the lower caste and class people to become economically sound and there is upward mobility .
  • Today Indian diaspora living abroad get the identity of Indian not from caste or class they were belongs to.
  • Inter caste marriages are becoming more common and are being accepted On marriage portals you can observe “ Caste no bar “ marriage advertisements increasing day by day.
  • Traditional division of labour was breaking down due to industrialization; this was given a boost by
  • Increasing use of modern communication facilities, increased interaction between members of different castes has led to decrease in feeling of
  • Globalization has resulted into growing urbanization, which has facilitated secular pattern of living and hence impacted “separation of contact” aspect of caste system.

5.IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON FAMILY

  • Increasing mobility of younger generation in search of new employment and educational opportunities allegedly weakened the family relations.
  • Nuclearization of families : Another striking impact is a gradual change took place in the family structure from joint / extended families to nuclear family pattern.
  • Traditional authority structure i.e. head of the family i.e. father / grandfather/karta started losing his authority to the breadwinner of the family.
  • Even within the nuclear family one can witness the changing marital roles and distributions of power. Total subordination of women to men and strict disciplinarian role of father towards children are also changing.
  • Rise in individualism: Younger generation, particularly those with higher education and jobs, no longer believe in total surrender of their individual interests to family interest. The individualism is increasing even within the family structure. The increasing costs of education, health services and new job opportunities opened up for the women outside the house once again brought the role of family into question
  • Emergence of single parent families enabling unmarried individuals to adopt children. Concept of living families is also emerging where couples live together but without marrying .
  • Independent decision making : younger generations are leading entirely a different way of life. In the process of finding their partners / mates, younger generations are depending mostly on internet marriage sites like ‘com, Bharat Matrimony.’ Family involvement in finding a groom / bride is reduced to nominal.
  • With more women joining the workforce system, the care of aged within families has
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